Malabar Exercise 2017: India kicks off naval exercise with US, Japan

Malabar 2017, the trilateral joint naval exercise, which began on Monday and brings together the navies of India, Japan and the United States.
The 21st edition of the ‘MALABAR-2017’ naval exercise began in the Bay of Bengal on Monday July 10 and will last till July 17.

The primary aim of this exercise is to increase interoperability amongst the three navies of India, U.S. and Japan and to reiterate the strong and resilient relationship between them in many areas, including maritime security operations.

The scope of MALABAR-2017 includes wide-ranging professional interactions during the Harbour Phase at Chennai from 10 to 13 July 2017 and a diverse range of operational activities at sea during the Sea Phase from 14 to 17 July 17.

The thrust of exercises at sea this year would be on Aircraft Carrier operations, Air Defence, Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), Surface Warfare, Visit Board Search and Seizure (VBSS), Search and Rescue, Joint Manoeuvres and Tactical procedures.

In addition, officials from the three countries will be flown onboard the ships at sea on 15 July.

The Indian Navy will be represented by the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya with its air wing, guided missile destroyer INS Ranvir, indigenous stealth frigates INS Shivalik and INS Sahyadri, indigenous ASW corvette INS Kamorta, missile corvettes INS Kora and INS Kirpan, one Sindhughosh class submarine, fleet tanker INS Jyoti and Long Range Maritime Patrol Aircraft P8I.

INS Vikramaditya

INS_Vikramaditya_(R33)_close_shot
Originally built as Baku and commissioned in 1987, the carrier served with the Soviet Navy and later with the Russian Navy (as Admiral Gorshkov) before being decommissioned in 1996. The carrier was purchased by India on 20 January 2004 after years of negotiations at a final price of $2.35 billion. The ship successfully completed her sea trials in July 2013 and aviation trials in September 2013.

She was commissioned on 16 November 2013 at a ceremony held at Severodvinsk, Russia. On 14 June 2014, the Prime Minister of India formally inducted INS Vikramaditya into the Indian Navy and dedicated her to the nation.

INS Ranvir

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INS Ranvir is the fourth of the five Rajput-class destroyers built for the Indian Navy. Ranvir was commissioned on 28 October 1986.

INS Shivalik

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INS Shivalik (F47) is the lead ship of her class of stealth multi-role frigates built for the Indian Navy. She is the first stealth warship built by India. She was built at the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) located in Mumbai. Construction of the vessel began in 2001 and was completed by 2009. She underwent sea trials from thereon before being commissioned on 29 April 2010

INS Sahyadri

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INS Sahyadri was built at the Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) located in Mumbai. The keel of the vessel was laid on 30 September 2003 and was launched on 27 May 2005. It underwent sea trials in 2011-2012. From there it was commissioned on 21 July 2012 into the Eastern Naval Command headquartered at Visakhapatnam

INS Kamorta

INS_Kamorta_(3)
INS Kamorta is the first of four anti-submarine Kamorta-class stealth corvettes which has been built for the Indian Navy.She was designed and manufactured by GRSE, launched on 19 April 2010, as part of Project 28, approved in 2003. As in INS Shivalik, high-grade steel produced in India was utilized for its construction. She was delivered to Navy on 12 July 2014. She is the first indigenous anti-submarine corvette as well as the first indigenous stealth corvette built by India. She has enhanced stealth features such as an X Form Hull and inclined sides for low Radar cross-section, Infra-red suppression, and Acoustic quieting systems. Union minister of defense, Arun Jaitley commissioned the ship on 23 August 2014. It was named after Kamorta island in Andaman and Nicobar, India .

INS Cora

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INS Kora is the lead ship of her class of corvettes, currently in active service with the Indian Navy. The ship was launched on 23 September 1992 and comissioned on 10 August 1998.

INS Kirpan
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INS Kirpan (1959) was a Type 14 Blackwood-class frigate commissioned in 1959. INS Kirpan (P44) is a Khukri-class corvette, currently in active service with the Indian Navy

INS Jyoti

INS_Jyoti_(A58)
INS Jyoti (A58) is the third of the four Komandarm Fedko-class replenishment oilers. She was modified for naval use and is now being operated by the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy.

INS Jyoti was constructed by the Admiralty Shipyard of St. Petersburg, Russia. It was built to be a Project 15966M merchant tanker, but was modified and purchased by the Indian Navy, and was commissioned on July 20, 1996.

Sindhughosh class Submarines

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Sindhughosh-class submarines are Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines in active service with the Indian Navy. Their names are in Sanskrit, but in their Roman-alphabet forms sometimes a final short -a is dropped.

The Sindhughosh submarines, designated 877EKM, were designed as part of Project 877, and built under a contract between Rosvooruzhenie and the Ministry of Defence (India).

The submarines have a displacement of 3,000 tonnes, a maximum diving depth of 300 meters, top speed of 18 knots, and are able to operate solo for 45 days with a crew of 53.

P-8I Neptune

Boeing_P-8I_of_the_Indian_Navy
In January 2008, Boeing proposed the P-8I, a customized export variant of the P-8A, for the Indian Navy. It features two major components not fitted on the P-8A, a Telephonics APS-143 OceanEye aft radar and a magnetic anomaly detector (MAD). On 4 January 2009, India’s Ministry of Defence signed a US$2.1 billion agreement with Boeing for the supply of eight P-8Is to replace the Indian Navy’s aging Tupolev Tu-142M maritime surveillance turboprops. India was the P-8’s first international customer and was also Boeing’s first military sale to India. In October 2010, India’s Defence Acquisition Council approved the purchase of four additional P-8Is; this purchase is reportedly under consideration as of 2014. In 2011, India planned to order 12 more P-8Is at a later date. In July 2016, it was confirmed India had ordered another four P-8Is that will be delivered by 2020.

The U.S. Navy will be represented by the ships from the Nimitz Carrier Strike Group and other units from the U.S. 7th Fleet.

The U.S. Navy forces will include the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Nimitz with its air wing, Ticonderoga-class cruiser USS Princeton, Arleigh Burke-class destroyers USS Kidd, USS Howard and USS Shoup along with integral helicopters, a los angeles-class attack submarine and one Long Range Maritime Patrol Aircraft P8A.

USS Nimitz

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USS Nimitz (CVN-68) is a supercarrier of the United States Navy, and the lead ship of her class. One of the largest warships in the world, she was laid down, launched and commissioned as CVAN-68 ON 3 MAY 1975 but was redesignated CVN 68 (nuclear-powered multimission aircraft carrier) on 30 June 1975 as part of the fleet realignment.

USS Princeton

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USS Princeton (CG-59) is a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser serving in the United States Navy. Armed with naval guns and anti-air, anti-surface, and anti-submarine missiles, plus other weapons, she is equipped for surface-to-air, surface-to-surface, and anti-submarine warfare. She was previously home to two SH-60B LAMPS Mk III Seahawk helicopters and now carries a pair of the MH-60R version of the Seahawk. This warship is named for the Revolutionary War victories over the British by George Washington in and around the town of Princeton, New Jersey. The ship was comissioned on 11 February 1989.

USS Kidd

USS_Kidd
USS Kidd (DDG-100) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer in the United States Navy. She is the third Navy ship named after Rear Admiral Isaac C. Kidd, who was on board Arizona during the attack on Pearl Harbor, and was the first American flag officer to die in World War II. The ship is part of Destroyer Squadron 9 of Carrier Strike Group 3[citation needed] which is currently headed by the Nimitz-class nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN-74). The ship was commissioned on 9 june 2007.

USS Howard

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USS Howard (DDG-83) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer in the United States Navy. She is named for Medal of Honor recipient First Sergeant Jimmie E. Howard, USMC. This ship is the 33rd destroyer of its class. USS Howard was the 19th ship of this class to be built by Bath Iron Works at Bath, Maine, and construction began on 8 December 1998. She was launched and christened on 20 November 1999. She was commissioned into the Navy on 20 October 2001.

USS Shoup

Sea Trials
USS Shoup (DDG-86) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer in the United States Navy. The ship is named for Medal of Honor recipient General David M. Shoup, the 22nd Commandant of the Marine Corps.

Construction, on the 36th destroyer of its class, began at the Northrop Grumman Ship Systems’ Ingalls Operations on 10 November 1998. USS Shoup was the 16th ship of this class to be built at Ingalls Shipbuilding
Shoup was commissioned on 22 June 2002 at Port Terminal 37 in Seattle, Washington. Her present homeport is Everett, Washington.

LosAngels Class Submarines

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The Los Angeles class (also known as the 688 class) is a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines (SSN) in service with the United States Navy. They represent two generations and close to half a century of the U.S. Navy’s attack submarine fleet. As of 2017, 36 of the class are still in commission and 26 retired from service.

P8 A

P-8A Poseidon flies over Jacksonville
The Boeing P-8 Poseidon (formerly the Multimission Maritime Aircraft or MMA) is a military aircraft developed for the United States Navy (USN). The aircraft has been developed by Boeing Defense, Space & Security, modified from the 737-800ERX. The P-8 conducts anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare (ASUW), and shipping interdiction, along with an early warning self-protection (EWSP) ability, otherwise known as electronic support measures (ESM).[8] This involves carrying torpedoes, depth charges, Harpoon anti-ship missiles, and other weapons. It is able to drop and monitor sonobuoys. It is designed to operate in conjunction with the Northrop Grumman MQ-4C Triton Broad Area Maritime Surveillance unmanned aerial vehicle.

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) will be represented by JS Izumo, a helicopter carrier with SH 60K helicopters and JS Sazanami, a missile destroyer with SH 60K integral helicopter.

JS Izumo

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JS Izumo (DDH-183) is a helicopter carrier (officially classified by Japan as a helicopter destroyer) and the lead ship in the Izumo class of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF). She is the second warship to be named for Izumo Province, with the previous ship being the armored cruiser Izumo (1898).

The ship began sea trials on 29 September 2014. The ship was commissioned on 25 March 2015.

JS Sazanami

MC1 Mike Jones Public Affairs Officer
JS Sazanami is the fourth vessel of the Takanami class destroyers of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF).

Sazanami was authorized under the Medium-term Defense Buildup Plan of 1996, and was built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries shipyards in Nagasaki. She was laid down on 4 April 2002, launched on 29 August 2003. She was commissioned into service on 16 February 2005. and was initially assigned to the JMSDF Escort Flotilla 2 based at Sasebo.

MALABAR-2017 will be another milestone with participation of 16 ships, two submarines and more than 95 aircraft, towards strengthening mutual confidence and inter-operability as well as sharing of best practices between the Indian, Japanese and the U.S. Navies.

The exercise is a demonstration of the joint commitment of all three nations to address common maritime challenges across the spectrum of operations and will go a long way in enhancing maritime security in the Indo-Pacific region, for the benefit of the global maritime community.

The MALABAR series of exercises, initiated in 1992 between the Indian and US Navies, have steadily grown in scope, complexity and participation into a multifaceted exercise with the participation of the JMSDF.

History –

Exercise Malabar is a trilateral naval exercise involving the United States, Japan and India as permanent partners. Originally a bilateral exercise between India and the United States, Japan became a permanent partner in 2015. Past non-permanent participants are Australia and Singapore. The annual Malabar series began in 1992 and includes diverse activities, ranging from fighter combat operations from aircraft carriers through Maritime Interdiction Operations Exercises.

Three exercises were conducted before 1998 , when the Americans suspended exercises after India tested nuclear weapons. However, the United States renewed military contacts following the September 11 attacks when India joined President George W Bush’s campaign against international terrorism.

In 2002, the exercises comprised basic passing maneuvers among naval vessels, anti-submarine exercises and replenishment-at-sea drills.

In 2003, US warships USS Fitzgerald (DDG-62) and USS Chosin (CG-65); US submarine USS Pasadena (SSN-752); Indian guided missile frigates INS Brahmaputra and INS Ganga; Indian submarine INS Shalki and aircraft conducted anti-submarine warfare tactics.

In 2004, Malabar participants included advanced assets like the USS Paul F. Foster (DD-964), USS Alexandria (SSN-757), a Los Angeles-class submarine, US Navy P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft, and the SH-60B Seahawk LAMPS MKIII helicopter. This enabled both navies to engage in submarine familiarization exercises, a key capability for anti-submarine warfare collaboration.

In 2005, Malabar featured the participation of the aircraft carriers USS Nimitz (CVN-68) and INS Viraat. During a month of operations, US and Indian forces collaborated on a wide variety of tasks ranging from a joint diving salvage operation to a 24-hour ‘war at sea’ simulation that saw the two forces engage in mock combat.

In 2006, the USS Boxer (LHD 4) Expeditionary Strike Group (BOXESG) comprising 13 ships including amphibious ships, cruisers, destroyers, and the US submarine USS Providence (SSN-719) as well as Marines from the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) participated in the exercise. It was the first time a United States Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) led the exercise. The addition of the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Midgett (WHEC 726) and an Indian Coast Guard Patrol Ship allowed for the exchange of Coast Guard practices between nations in maritime law enforcement, anti-piracy operations, pollution control, search and rescue, and VBSS support. During the second phase, BOXESG pulled into several Indian ports, including Mumbai and Goa. The stop offered BOXESG a chance to experience Indian culture, re-supply, and support a Habitat for Humanity project. The visit gave leadership a chance to discuss future Malabar exercises and interoperability between the three nation’s armed forces.

Malabar 2007 was the ninth Malabar exercise and was the first one to be held outside the Indian Ocean, off the Japanese island of Okinawa.

Besides interception and dissimilar air combat exercises, it featured surface and anti-submarine warfare, maritime interdiction and visit, board, search, and seizure operations to counter piracy and other non-state acts at sea. On 4 September 2007, the naval exercise included 25 vessels from India, the United States, Japan, Australia and Singapore in the Bay of Bengal. This was the first time a joint exercise of this scale involving 25 vessels was conducted. The exercise was previously a bilateral India-US engagement that was expanded for the first time.

India’s Left parties that have criticised Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s government on the India-US civilian nuclear deal had vehemently protested the exercise, seeing it as another sign of the growing closeness between the two countries. At one time, the Indian government was known to have considered postponing or canceling the exercise but the Indian Navy put its foot down, saying the logistics involved made any delay impossible.

China, which did off not officially comment on the exercise, was known to be unhappy over the event as it was being conducted in the Bay of Bengal for the first time. China has been cultivating naval cooperation with Bangladesh and Myanmar to gain access to the Bay of Bengal and has been strengthening military cooperation with Sri Lanka. In June, China had issued a ‘demarche’ to India, United States, Japan and Australia seeking details about their four-nation meeting, termed a Quadrilateral Initiative. India and Australia had quickly assured Beijing that security and defence issues did not form part of the meeting’s agenda.

The US Navy had the largest representation during Malabar 2007 with 13 warships, including the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS Nimitz that was protested when it dropped anchor off Chennai in July. The other vessels included the conventionally powered carrier USS Kitty Hawk, the nuclear submarine USS Chicago (SSN-721), two guided missile cruisers, and six guided missile destroyers. Eight warships, including the aircraft carrier INS Viraat, represented the Indian Navy. The other warships were the destroyers INS Mysore, INS Rana and INS Ranjit, fleet tanker INS Jyoti (A58) and a corvette INS Kuthar. Viraat’s Sea Harrier jets and Sea King helicopters, and the Indian Air Force’s Jaguar deep-penetration strike aircraft were also seen in action. Australia was represented by a frigate and a tanker; Japan by two destroyers; and Singapore by a frigate.

From 19 October 2008, Exercise Malabar 08, the twelfth of the series, was conducted in the Arabian Sea. The purpose of Malabar 2008 was to promote increase inter-operability between the United States and India, with a special emphasis on maritime interdiction, including counter-piracy and counter-terrorism operation.

Rear Admiral Anil Chopra, Flag Officer Commanding, Western Fleet (FOCWF), noted:

“This greatly enhances our two navies’ interoperability, which is very important to humanitarian assistance and disaster relief missions, as well as issues of maritime security and piracy.”

The US Navy was represented by the USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76)’s Carrier Strike Group Seven. In addition, one submarine, USS Springfield (SSN-761), and one P3C Orion aircraft also participated in the exercise. Joining Carrier Group Seven were the fast combat support ship Bridge and the nuclear-powered fast-attack submarine Springfield and a P-3C maritime patrol aircraft. Indian naval units included guided-missile destroyers Mumbai and Rana; the guided-missile frigates Talwar, Godavari, Brahmaputra, and Betwa; the replenishment tanker Aditya; and a Shishumar-class diesel-electric submarine.

In 2009 The Indian Navy, Japan Maritime Self Defense Force and U.S. Navy expanded their maritime partnerships during exercise Malabar 2009, held off the coast of Japan between 29 April and 3 May 2009.

The features of Exercise Malabar 2009 were: • Visit, Board, Search & Seizure (VBBS) techniques • Surface warfare maneuvers • Anti-submarine warfare • Gunnery training • Air defense

The ships involved from India were INS Mumbai (D62), INS Khanjar (P47), INS Ranvir (D54) and INS Jyoti (A58).

The ships from Japan were JDS Kurama (DDH144) and JDS Asayuki (DD132).

The ships from the US were USS Blue Ridge (LCC 19), USS Fitzgerald (DDG 62), USS Chafee (DDG 90) and the USS Seawolf (SSN 21).

In 2010 Ships, submarines and aircraft from the United States Navy’s Seventh Fleet arrived in Goa, India, 23 April to begin Exercise Malabar 2010 hosted by the Indian Navy.

“The U.S. Navy and Indian Navy are natural partners and friends who share a mutual desire to ensure security and stability in this region,” said Rear Adm. Kevin M. Donegan, Commander, Battle Force Seventh Fleet. “A high-end exercise like Malabar strengthens our growing naval relationship and the interoperability between our two professional maritime forces.”

Training conducted at-sea included surface and antisubmarine warfare, coordinated gunnery exercises, air defense, and visit, board, search, and seizure drills. Sailors took part in professional exchanges and discussions while at-sea and on shore. United States Navy personnel participated in a community service project during the port visit to Goa.

United States forces participating in Malabar included the Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruiser USS Shiloh (CG 67), Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyers USS Lassen (DDG 82) and USS Chafee (DDG 90), Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided-missile frigate USS Curts (FFG 38), Los Angeles-class fast-attack submarine USS Annapolis (SSN 760), P-3 Orion aircraft, SH-60 helicopters and a Sea, Air and Land (SEAL) special forces detachment.

 The Malabar Series of Exercises 2–10 April 2011 were held off the Okinawa coast. India had stopped involving more countries in the exercises after China, in 2007, sent demarches to all the participants of a five-nation naval exercise held in the Bay of Bengal. With the Japanese participation in 2009 raising no political storm, India was once again agreeable to the idea of allowing the Japanese Maritime Self Defence Force to participate.

Carrier Strike Group Seven participated in Malabar 2011. United States naval units initially included the guided-missile destroyers Sterett and Stethem; the guided-missile frigate Reuben James; and nuclear-powered attack submarine USS Santa Fe (SSN-763). Indian naval units included the guided-missile destroyers Delhi, Ranvijay, and INS Ranvir (D54); the corvette INS Kirch (P62); and the replenishment tanker Jyoti.

The at-sea portions were conducted in the western Pacific Ocean, east of the Luzon Strait, and east of Okinawa. The exercise’s location coincided with the Indian Navy’s western Pacific deployment.

Malabar 2011 was designed to advance United States-Indian coordination and operational capacity. Exercise events included liaison officer professional exchanges and embarks; communications exercises; surface action group exercise operations; formation maneuvering; helicopter cross deck evolutions; underway replenishments; humanitarian assistance and disaster relief; gunnery exercises; visit, board, search and seizure; maritime strike; air defense; screen exercise and anti-submarine warfare. United States and Indian navy ships ended the exercise on 9 April 2011.

In 2012 Carrier Strike Group (CSG) 1 of the US Navy, comprising[21]USS Carl Vinson, embarked Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 17, Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruiser USS Bunker Hill and Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Halsey participated in the 10-day exercise. Military Sealift Command’s fast combat support ship USNS Bridge also provided support for the exercise.

The frigate INS Satpura, destroyers INS Ranvir and INS Ranvijay, and corvette INS Kulish represented the Indian Navy, along with Indian Navy replenishment oiler INS Shakti (A57).

The exercise took place in approximately 450 nautical miles of sea and air space, and offered the opportunity for the United States and Indian naval services to conduct communications exercises, surface action group (SAG) operations, helicopter cross-deck evolutions, and gunnery exercises. The participants split into two SAGs, with Bunker Hill leading one and Satpura leading the other. Carl Vinson and CVW-17 provided air support for the exercise.

Indian Navy-US Navy bilateral exercise, MALABAR 2013 commenced on 5 November 2013 and continued until 11 November 2013 in the Bay of Bengal. Events planned during the ‘At-Sea’ phase included professional exchanges and embarkations; communications exercises; Surface Action Group operations; leapfrogs; helicopter cross-deck evolutions; gunnery exercises; Visit Board Search and Seizure (VBSS) and anti-submarine warfare (ASW).

Participation from the US Navy includes the Arleigh Burke class guided-missile destroyer USS McCampbell (DDG 85) and a P-3 Orion aircraft. Indian Navy participation includes the indigenously built Frigate INS Shivalik (F47), the Guided Missile Destroyer INS Ranvijay (D55) and Tupolev Tu-142 Maritime Reconnaissance aircraft.

Exercise Malabar 2014 commenced on 24 July 2014 at Sasebo Naval Base, Japan. This edition of MALABAR was a trilateral one involving the navies of India, Japan and the United States. The exercise involved Carrier strike group operations, Maritime patrol and Reconnaissance operations, anti piracy operations and Visit, board, search, and seizure (VBSS) operations, Search and rescue exercises, helicopter cross-deck landings, Underway replenishment, gunnery and anti-submarine warfare exercises, and Liaison officer exchange and embarkation.

The Indian Navy was represented by INS Ranvijay (guided missile destroyer), INS Shivalik (stealth frigate) and INS Shakti (fleet tanker). Two destroyers along with a P3C Orion and a ShinMaywa US-2 were participating from the Japanese Navy. From the U.S. Navy one submarine (SSN), two destroyers, one tanker along with one Maritime Reconnaissance aircraft participated. One United States Navy Carrier Strike group (CSG) based on the Nimitz class carrier USS George Washington joined for the sea phase of the exercise.

Malabar 2015 – On 26 January 2015, the U.S. President and Indian Prime Minister agreed, in a joint statement, to upgrade exercise Malabar. India invited Japan to be a part of exercise, held in the Bay of Bengal. Since 2007, India has only hosted Exercise Malabar when the US and India are the two participating parties. Malabar 2009, 2011, and 2014 all took place off the coast of Japan and included the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Forces. The exercise was undertaken by the three countries in the Bay of Bengal from 15 October 2015 till 19 October 2015.

The Indian Navy was represented by INS Sindhuraj (diesel-electric submarine), INS Ranvijay (guided missile destroyer), INS Shivalik (stealth frigate), INS Betwa (guided-missile frigate) and INS Shakti (fleet tanker). The Japanese Navy sent destroyer JS Fuyuzuki. From the U.S. Navy came the nuclear aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 71), the USS Normandy, Freedom-class littoral combat ship USS Fort Worth (LCS 3) and Los Angeles-class submarine USS City of Corpus Christi (SSN 705).

The 2016 Malabar exercise was conducted on 26 June 2016. This time, Japan was also a part of the exercise.
The 20th edition of the exercise, Ex MALABAR-16, is being conducted from 14 to 17 June 16 with the harbour phase at Sasebo from 10 to 13 June 16 and the sea phase in the Pacific Ocean from 14 to 17 June 16. The primary aim of this exercise is to increase interoperability amongst the three navies and develop common understanding of procedures for Maritime Security Operations. The scope of MALABAR-16 includes professional interactions in harbour and a diverse range of activities at sea, including complex surface, sub-surface and air operations.

 

Source : https://www.outlookindia.com/newsscroll/malabar-2017-india-japan-us-begins-mega-naval-exercise/1095486

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malabar_(Naval_Exercise)

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